Confusion psychosis

"Classification of Endogenous Psychoses and Their Differentiated Etiology"
Karl Leonhard
Springer Verlag, 2nd Revised edition, 1999
p. 69-75

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Confusion psychosis is accompanied in the excited phase by incoherence, and in the inhibited phase by inhibition of the thought process. At lower degrees of excitement only "incoherence of thematic choice" appears. Excitement of thought is connected with pressure of speech, and thought inhibition with verbal impoverishment, even mutism. In the excited phase symptoms include misidentification of persons and often ideas of reference and hallucinations, particularly auditory. In the inhibited phase, perplexity may be accompanied by ideas of significance and of reference, less often by hallucinations. Frequently the picture is not pure; traits belonging to motility psychosis, anxiety-happiness psychosis, and manic-depressive illness may be present. The course varies, frequently one pole is more noticeable than the other, and often the poles follow one another. Prepsychotic characteristic are frequent with a tendency for digressive or, on the contrary, retarded thinking. In terms of physique the pyknic form seems to predominate.

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